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Grabar Pronouns: Ինքնին

The most common way of expressing reflexivity in Classical Armenian is with the pronoun ինքնին, which can be used in the first, second or third person, singular or plural. Although this beautiful pronoun has fallen out of use (having in some cases been strangely replaced with the unwieldy imposter ինքնըստինքեան, which was concocted sometime in the late 19th century to sound as though it came from Classical Armenian), I struggle to find a single example in modern Armenian where ինքնին would not work better than the alternative. Let's review some examples:

Grabar: Ես ինքնին մտօք իմովք ծառայեմ օրինացն Աստուծոյ։

Western Armenian: Ես ինքս մտքով Աստուծոյ օրէնքին կը ծառայեմ։

English: I myself serve the law of God.

Grabar: Ահաւադիկ ես ինքնին խնդրեցից զխաշինս իմ։

Western Armenian: Ահա ես՝ ինքս՝ իմ ոչխարներս պիտի փնտռեմ։

English: I myself will search for my sheep.

Grabar: Դու ինքնին իսկ քեզէն կը վկայես ինձ։

Western Armenian: Դուն քեզմէ ինծի կը վկայես։

English: You yourself bear me witness.

Grabar: Դու ինքնին իսկ գիտես։

Western Armenian: Դուն քեզմէ իսկ գիտես։

English: You yourself know.

Grabar: Դուք ինքնին գիտէք։

Western Armenian: Դուք ձեզմէ գիտէք։

English: You yourselves know.

Grabar: Աստուած ինքնին գիտէ։

Western Armenian: Աստուածը ինք գիտէ։

English: God Himself knows.

Grabar: Երկիրն ինքնին բերէ զպտուղ։

Western Armenian: Երկիրը ինքնիրմէ պտուղ կը բերէ։

English: The earth brings forth fruit of herself.

Grabar: Իբրեւ զհասկ ինքնին անկեալ ի ցօղնոյ։

Western Armenian: Ինչպէս հասկը` ինքնիրեն ինկած ցօղունէ։

English: As an ear of corn itself falling from the stalk.

Grabar: Ինքնին անձամբ անձին առնէր իւր պատասխանի։

Western Armenian: Ինք ալ իր խօսքերուն պատասխանը իրեն կու տար։

English: She returned answer to herself.

Grabar: Ուղիղն ինքնին իմանայ զճանապարհս իւր:

Western Armenian: Ուղիղը ինքնիրեն իր ճամբաները կ'իմանայ։

English: The upright man himself understands his ways.


Learn Classical Armenian

The Wolf and the Lamb in Latin, Classical Armenian and English



The Wolf and the Lamb

Lupus et Agnus

Գայլ եւ Գառն

(In Latin, Classical Armenian, and English)


Lupuslupus: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: wolf etet: conj. Eng: and agnusagnus: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: lamb venerantvenio: verb.pluperf.3per.pl. Eng: come adad: prep. Eng: to eundemidem: adj.acc.sg.masc. Eng: same rivum,rivus: noun.acc.sg.masc. Eng: river compulsicompello: perf.pass.part.nom.pl.masc. Eng: compel siti:sitis: noun.abl.sg.neut. Eng: thirst lupuslupus: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: wolf stabatsto: verb.imp.3per.sg. Eng: stand superior,superior: adj.nom.sg.masc. Eng: above queque: conj. Eng: and agnusagnus: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: lamb longelonge: adv. Eng: far inferior:inferior: adj.nom.sg.masc. Eng: below tunctunc: adv. Eng: then latrolatro: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: robber incitatusincito: perf.pass.part.nom.sg.masc. Eng: incite improbaimproba: adj.abl.sg.fem. Eng: wicked fauce,fauces: noun.abl.sg.fem. Eng: throat intulitinfero: verb.perf.3per.sg. Eng: bring causamcausa: noun.acc.sg.fem. Eng: cause, reason jurgii.iurgium: noun.gen.sg.neut. Eng: quarrel "Cur,"cur: adv. Eng: why inquit,inquam: verb.pres.3per.sg. Eng: say "fecistifacio: verb.perf.2per.sg. Eng: make istamiste: pron.acc.sg.fem. Eng: this aquamaqua: noun.acc.sg.fem. Eng: water turbulentamturbulentus: adj.acc.sg.fem. Eng: turbid mihiego: pron.dat.sg. Eng: I bibenti?"bibo: verb.part.pres.abl.sg.fem. Eng: drink Lanigerlaniger: adj.nom.sg.masc. Eng: lamb contracontra: prep. Eng: against timens:timeo: part.pres.nom.sg.masc. Eng: afraid "Quiqui: adv. Eng: how possum,possum: verb.pres.1per.sg. Eng: able quaeso,quaeso: verb.pres.1per.sg. Eng: pray facerefacio: verb.inf.pres.act. Eng: make, do quodquod: conj. Eng: that quereris,queror: verb.pres.2per.sg.pass. Eng: complain Lupe?lupus: noun.voc.sg.masc. Eng: wolf liquorliquor: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: liquid decurritdecurro: verb.perf.3per.sg. Eng: run down aa: prep. Eng: from tete: pron.abl.sg. Eng: you adad: prep. Eng: to meosmeus: pron.acc.pl.masc. Eng: my haustus."haustus: noun.acc.pl.masc. Eng: draught Ille,ille: pron.nom.sg.masc. Eng: he repulsusrepulsus: part.perf.pass.nom.sg.masc. Eng: repulse viribusvis: noun.abl.pl.masc. Eng: power veritatis,veritas: noun.gen.sg.fem. Eng: truth ait,aio: verb.pres.3per.sg. Eng: affirm "Anteante: adv. Eng: before hoshic: pron.acc.pl.masc. Eng: this sexsex: num. Eng: six menses,mensis: noun.acc.pl.masc. Eng: month maledixistimaledico: verb.perf.2per.sg. Eng: malign mihi."ego: pron.dat.sg. Eng: I Agnusagnus: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: lamb respondit:respondeo: verb.perf.3per.sg. Eng: respond "Equidemequidem: adv. Eng: indeed eramsum: verb.imp.1per.sg. Eng: be nonnon: adv. Eng: not natus."natus: part.perf.pass.nom.sg.masc. Eng: born "Hercule,"prop. inquit,inquam: verb.pres.3per.sg. Eng: say "tuustuus: pron.nom.sg.masc. Eng: your paterpater: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: father maledixitmaledico: verb.perf.3per.sg. Eng: malign mihi."ego: pron.dat.sg. Eng: I Atqueatque: conj. Eng: and injustainjusta: adj.abl.sg.fem. Eng: unjust necenex: noun.abl.sg.fem. Eng: death laceratlacero: verb.pres.3per.sg. Eng: rend correptum.corripio: part.perf.pass.acc.sg.neut. Eng: seize

The wolf and lamb had come to the same river, compelled by thirst: the wolf was standing higher, and the lamb far lower: then the robber incited by an unclean throat, brought on cause of quarrel. “Why,” says he, “hast thou made my drinking water turbid!” The wool-bearer on the other hand fearing, said: “How am I able, I pray, to do that thou complainest of, O wolf? The liquid runs down from thee for my draughts.” He, being repelled by the powers of truth, says, “Six months ago, thou hast spoken ill of me.” The lamb answered: “I indeed was not then born.” “By Hercules,” says he, “thy father spoke ill of me.” And so with unjust death he tears the lamb quickly seized.

Գայլգայլ: noun.nom.sg. Eng: wolf եւեւ: conj. Eng: and գառնգառն: noun.nom.sg. Eng: lamb եկեալգալ: verb.pfv.nom.sg. Eng: come հասանէինհասանել: verb.past.3per.pl. Eng: arrive իի: prep. Eng: in, at, to from գետգետ: noun.nom.acc.sg. Eng: river իբրեւիբրեւ: prep. Eng: as if զպասքեալպասքել: verb.pfv.acc.sg. Eng: thirst ծարաւիս.ծարաւ: adj.acc.loc.pl. Eng: thirsty գերգեր: prep. Eng: over իի: prep. Eng: in, at, to from վերոյվեր: post. Eng: above կայրկալ: verb.past.3per.sg. Eng: stand գայլն,գայլ: noun.nom.sg.def. Eng: wolf իսկիսկ: conj. Eng: but, and գառննգառն: noun.nom.sg.def. Eng: lamb քաջքաջ: adj.nom.acc.sg. Eng: brave իի: prep. Eng: in, at, to from բացբաց: adv. Eng: apart from խոնարհագոյն։խոնարհագոյն: adj.nom.sg.comp. Eng: low Անդանդ: adv. Eng: there աւազակնաւազակ: noun.nom.sg.def. Eng: robber այնայն: pron.nom.sg. Eng: that գրգռեալգրգռել: verb.pfv.nom.sg. Eng: provoke իի: prep. Eng: in, at, to from կոկորդինկոկորդ: noun.loc.sg.def. Eng: throat չարութենէչարութիւն: noun.abl.sg. Eng: evil մատուցեալմատուցանել: verb.pfv.nom.sg. Eng: approach պատճառախնդրելով.պատճառախնդրել: verb.pfv.sg. Eng: make excuses ընդէ՛ր,ընդէր: part. Eng: why ասէ,ասել: verb.pres.3per.sg. Eng: say պղտորեցերպղտորել: verb.pres.2per.sg. Eng: muddy զջուրջուր: noun.acc.sg. Eng: water զորոր: pron.acc.sg. Eng: which ըմպեմ։ըմպել: verb.pres.1per.sg. Eng: drink Իսկիսկ: conj. Eng: but, and գեղմնաւորնգեմնաւոր: adj.nom.sg.def. Eng: woolly զահիահ: noun.gen.sg. Eng: fear հարեալ,հարել: verb.pfv.nom.sg. Eng: strike զիա՛րդզիարդ: part. Eng: why աղէաղէ: intj. Eng: woe առնելառնել: verb.inf.nom. Eng: do կարիցեմ,կարել: verb.cond.1per.sg. Eng: able ասէ,ասել: verb.pres.3per.sg. Eng: say զորմէոր: pron.abl.sg. Eng: which չարախօսես.չարախօսել: verb.pres.2per.sg. Eng: malign զիզի: conj. Eng: that իի: prep. Eng: in, at, to from քէնդու: pron.abl.sg. Eng: you (sg.) եւեւ: conj. Eng: and այսրայսր: adv. Eng: here հոսէհոսել: verb.pres.3per.sg. Eng: flow գետդ։գետ: noun.nom.acc.sg.poss2. Eng: river Եւեւ: conj. Eng: and նանա: pron.nom.sg. Eng: s/he, they տագնապեալտագնապել: verb.inf.nom. Eng: be alarmed իի: prep. Eng: in, at, to from ճշմարտութեաննճշմարտութիւն: noun.gen.sg.def. Eng: truth զօրութեէնէ,զօրութիւն: noun.abl.sg. Eng: power յառաջյառաջ: adj. Eng: forward քանքան: conj. Eng: than զամիսսամիս: noun.acc.pl. Eng: month վեցվեց: num. Eng: six անիծերանիծել: verb.pres.2per.sg. Eng: curse զիս,ես: pron.acc.sg. Eng: I ասէ։ասել: verb.pres.3per.sg. Eng: say Ետտալ: verb.aor.3per.sg. Eng: give պատասխանիպատասխանի: noun.acc.sg. Eng: answer գառննգառն: noun.nom.sg.def. Eng: lamb եւեւ: conj. Eng: and ասէ.ասել: verb.pres.3per.sg. Eng: say ծնեալծնանել: verb.pfv.nom.sg. Eng: born իսկիսկ: conj. Eng: but, and չէրչ: not; լինել: verb.past.3per.sg. Eng: be իմիմ: pron.adj.nom.sg. Eng: my յայնժամյայնժամ: adv. Eng: then տակաւին։տակաւին: adv. Eng: yet Ապաապա: adv./conj. Eng: then հայրհայր: noun.nom.sg. Eng: father քոդու: pron.gen.sg. Eng: you (sg.) էր,լինել: verb.past.3per.sg. Eng: be ասէ,ասել: verb.pres.3per.sg. Eng: say որոր: pron.nom.sg. Eng: who զիսես: pron.acc.sg. Eng: I անէծ.անիծել: verb.aor.3per.sg. Eng: curse եւեւ: conj. Eng: and այնպէսայնպէս: adv. Eng: like that գէշգէշ: noun.nom.acc.sg. Eng: carrion գէշգէշ: noun.nom.acc.sg. Eng: carrion պատառեացպատառել: verb.aor.3per.sg. Eng: tear զնանա: pron.acc.sg. Eng: s/he, they տարապարտուց։տարապարտ: adj.abl.pl. Eng: vain

Grabar Prepositions: Under/Beneath

There are two principal ways to say under/beneath in Classical Armenian.

The first is expressed in the form ընդ followed by a noun in the instrumental case. For example:

Grabar: Ընդ յարկաւ։

Western Armenian: Յարկի տակ։

English: Under a roof.

Grabar: Ընդ մահճօք։

Western Armenian: Մահիճի տակ։

English: Under a bed.

Grabar: Ընդ իշխանութեամբ։

Western Armenian: Իշխանութեան տակ։

English: Under authority.

Grabar: Ընդ որով։

Western Armenian: Որուն տակ։

English: Under which/whom.

Grabar: Ընդ հովանեաւ։

Western Armenian: Շուքի տակ։

English: Under shade.

The second is expressed in the form ի ներքոյ followed by a noun in the genitive case. For example:

Grabar: Ի ներքոյ լեզուի նորա։

Western Armenian: Անոր լեզուին տակ։

English: Under her tongue.

Grabar: Ի ներքոյ երկնից։

Western Armenian: Երկինքի տակ։

English: Under heaven.

Grabar: Ի ներքոյ երկրի։

Western Armenian: Երկրի տակ։

English: Beneath the earth.

Grabar: Ի ներքոյ արեգական։

Western Armenian: Արեգակին տակ։

English: Under the sun.

If by beneath we mean at the bottom of, or down below, then we can also use the form ի խոնարհ preceded or followed by a noun in the genitive case:

Grabar: ի խոնարհ ի գաւթին։

Western Armenian: Վարը՝ գաւիթին մէջ։

English: Beneath in the palace.

Grabar: Յերկիր ի խոնարհ։

Western Armenian: Վարը՝ աշխարհը։

English: In/upon the earth beneath.

And for an action that is directed downwards from above, we can also use ի խոնարհ, though here it must be followed by a noun in the ablative case.

Grabar: Ի խոնարհ ի բեմէն նայէր ի սեղանն։

Western Armenian: Բեմէն վար նայեցաւ սեղանին։

English: He looked down from the puplit at the altar.

Grabar: Ի խոնարհ անկեալ յերիվարէն։

Western Armenian: Երիվարէն վար իջաւ / ինկաւ։

English: He dismounted / fell from his horse.


Learn Classical Armenian

Lectio Septima


Learn Latin on the Armenian Antilibrary, by Beyon Miloyan

Inin: prep. Eng: in rebusres: noun.abl.pl.fem. Eng: thing humanis,humanus: adj.abl.pl.fem. Eng: human periculumpericulum: noun.nom.sg.neut. Eng: danger nonnon: adv. Eng: not estsum: verb.pres.3per.sg. Eng: be rarum.rarus: adj.nom.sg.neut. Eng: rare Romaniprop. bellumbellum: noun.acc.sg.neut. Eng: war habuerunthabeo: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: have inin: prep. Eng: in multismultus: adj.dat.pl.masc. Eng: many diebusdies: noun.abl.pl.masc. Eng: days etet: conj. Eng: and inin: prep. Eng: in multismultus: adj.dat.pl.masc. Eng: many annis.annus: noun.dat.pl.masc. Eng: year Romaniprop. bellumbellum: noun.acc.sg.neut. Eng: war habuerunthabeo: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: have cumcum: prep. Eng: with Etruscis.prop. Etiametiam: adv. Eng: also, yet bellumbellum: noun.acc.sg.neut. Eng: war habuerunthabeo: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: have cumcum: prep. Eng: with Aequis.prop. Habuerunthabeo: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: have bellumbellum: noun.acc.sg.neut. Eng: war cumcum: prep. Eng: with multis.multus: adj.dat.pl.neut. Eng: many Sedsed: conj. Eng: but Romaniprop. fortesfortis: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: brave fuerunt.sum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be Virivir: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: man magnimagnus: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: great inin: prep. Eng: in exercitibusexercitus: noun.abl.sg.masc. Eng: army Romanisprop. fuerunt.sum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be Ergoergo: adv. Eng: because of, on account of Romaniprop. viceruntvinco: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: win Etruscos.prop. Etiametiam: adv. Eng: also, yet viceruntvinco: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: win Aequos.prop. Sedsed: conj. Eng: but Romaniprop. nonnon: adv. Eng: not sempersemper: adv. Eng: always vicerunt.vinco: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: win Inin: prep. Eng: in annoannus: noun.abl.sg.masc. Eng: year trecentesimotrecentesimo: num. Eng: three-hundred nonagesimononagesimo: num. Eng: ninety anteante: prep. Eng: before Christum,prop. barbaribarbarus: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: barbarian veneruntvenio: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: come exex: prep. Eng: from Galliaprop. inin: prep. Eng: in Italiam.prop. Galliprop. fueruntsum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be barbari.barbarus: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: barbarian Galliprop. pugnaveruntpugno: verb.perf.3per.pl. Eng: fight cumcum: prep. Eng: with multismultus: adj.dat.pl.masc. Eng: many inin: prep. Eng: in Italia.prop. Galliprop. viceruntvinco: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: win multos.multus: adj.acc.pl.masc. Eng: many Galliprop. etiametiam: adv. Eng: also, yet pugnaveruntpugno: verb.perf.3per.pl. Eng: fight cumcum: prep. Eng: with Etruscis.prop. Galliprop. viceruntvinco: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: win Etruscosprop. inin: prep. Eng: in pugna.pugna: noun.abl.sg.fem. Eng: fight Galliprop. etiametiam: adv. Eng: also, yet veneruntvenio: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: come inin: prep. Eng: in terramterra: noun.acc.sg.fem. Eng: land Romanam.prop. Galliprop. pugnaveruntpugno: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: fight cumcum: prep. Eng: with exercituexercitus: noun.abl.sg.masc. Eng: army Romano.prop. Galliprop. viceruntvinco: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: win exercitumexercitus: noun.acc.sg.masc. Eng: army Romanum.prop. Inin: prep. Eng: in exercituexercitus: noun.abl.sg.masc. Eng: army Romanoprop. fueruntsum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be multimultus: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: many virivir: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: man magnimagnus: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: great etet: conj. Eng: and fortes.fortis: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: brave Sedsed: conj. Eng: but Galliprop. etiametiam: adv. Eng: also, yet fueruntsum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be magnimagnus: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: great etet: conj. Eng: and fortes.fortis: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: brave Galliprop. viceruntvinco: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: win Romanos.prop. Galliprop. veneruntvenio: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: come etiametiam: adv. Eng: also, yet inin: prep. Eng: in urbemurbs: noun.acc.sg.fem. Eng: city Romanam.prop. Galliprop. ceperuntcapio: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: capture ferefere: adv. Eng: almost totamtotus: adj.acc.sg.fem. Eng: whole urbem.urbs: noun.acc.sg.fem. Eng: city Sedsed: conj. Eng: but Galiprop. nonnon: adv. Eng: not ceperuntcapio: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: capture totamtotus: adj.acc.sg.fem. Eng: whole urbem.urbs: noun.acc.sg.fem. Eng: city Galiprop. nonnon: adv. Eng: not ceperuntcapio: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: capture Capitolium.prop. Inin: prep. Eng: in Capitolioprop. virivir: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: man fortesfortis: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: brave fuerunt.sum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be Sedsed: conj. Eng: but virivir: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: man fortesfortis: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: brave dormiebantdormio: verb.imp.3per.pl. Eng: sleep inin: prep. Eng: in Capitolio.prop. Virivir: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: man nonnon: adv. Eng: not audiveruntaudio: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: hear Gallosprop. inin: prep. Eng: in Capitolio.prop. Sedsed: conj. Eng: but anseresanser: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: goose fueruntsum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be etiametiam: adv. Eng: also, yet inin: prep. Eng: in Capitolio.prop. Anseresanser: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: goose nonnon: adv. Eng: not dormiebant.dormio: verb.imp.3per.pl. Eng: sleep Anseresanser: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: goose audiveruntaudio: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: hear Gallos.prop. Anseresanser: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: goose exclamaverunt.exclamo: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: exclaim Romaniprop. audiveruntaudio: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: hear anseres.anser: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: goose Romaniprop. pugnaveruntpugno: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: fight cumcum: prep. Eng: with Gallis.prop.

Nuncnunc: adv. Eng: now Cogitemuscogito: verb.past.perf.1per.pl. Eng: think

Adjectives used alone: Notice the use of multis in the sentence: pugnaverunt cum multis. It menas: They fought with many. Of course, mutlis means—many peoples or nations. We may leave a word understood with an adjective. We m ust then supply the right word in English; we usually supply one of these: men, things, etc.

Accusative and Ablative of fourth and fifth declensions: So far we have been studying only three declensions. We have used some words from the fourth declension. We must now take a closer look at the new forms. They are as follows (endings are underlined):

Fourth Declension

Accusative Ablative
Singular Exercitum Exercitu
Plural Exercitus Exercitibus

Fifth Declension

Accusative Ablative
Singular Diem Die
Plural Dies Diebus

As to the fourth declension—notice that it has the same accusative singular as the second declension. And it has the same ablative plural as the third.

As to the fifth declension—notice that all four forms above are the same as third declension (although the third sometimes has ablative singular in -i) except that the ablative plural has -ebus instead of -ibus.

How can we tell which declension? If we want to know what family a word belongs to, we take a look at the ablative singular.

  1. -a
  2. -o
  3. -e or -i
  4. -u
  5. -e

Are there any that are alike? Yes, the fifth declension has -e, and the third sometimes has -e. But there is no real problem—there are very few words that belong to the fifth declension. We shall mark them all thus: dies, -e (5).

Ablative used without prepositions: It is possible to use the ablative case without prepositions. It can have various meaning then. Study these examples:

  1. Romani non vicerunt pecunia. (The Romans did not conquer by money.)
  2. Romani fuerunt multi numero. (The Romans were many in number.)
  3. Romani exclamaverunt voce magna. (The Romans shouted with a great voice.)

Notice the English prepositions that we may supply. They are: in, by, with. We could fill out the translation more if we wanted to: in the first sentence we could say: by means of money. In the second sentence we could say: in respect to number. But the third sentence could not be filled in more. There are a few other uses of the ablative without prepositions. We shall meet them later. But for the present let us remember to try that list of prepositions: in, by, with whenever we see an ablative without a preposition.

Exerceamusexerceo: verb.pres.1per.pl. Eng: exercise nosego: pron.nom.pl. Eng: I

Look for ablative patterns:

Galliprop. exercitumexercitus: noun.acc.sg.masc. Eng: army Romanumprop. vicerunt.vinco: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: win Galliprop. etiametiam: adv. Eng: also, yet Etruscosprop. vicerunt.vinco: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: win Galliprop. nonnon: adv. Eng: not veneruntvenio: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: come inin: prep. Eng: in Italiamprop. magnismagnus: adj.abl.pl.masc. Eng: great navibus.navis: noun.abl.pl.fem. Eng: ship Galliprop. nonnon: adv. Eng: not veneruntvenio: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: come multismultus: adj.abl.pl.masc. Eng: many navibus.navis: noun.abl.pl.fem. Eng: ship Galliprop. navibusnavis: noun.abl.pl.fem. Eng: ship nonnon: adv. Eng: not venerunt.venio: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: come Galliprop. veneruntvenio: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: come multismultus: adj.abl.pl.masc. Eng: many exercitibus.exercitus: noun.abl.pl.masc. Eng: army Romaniprop. fueruntsum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be magnimagnus: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: great fortitudinefortitudo: noun.abl.sg.fem. Eng: fortitude Galliprop. etiametiam: adv. Eng: also, yet magnimagnus: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: great fortitudinefortitudo: noun.abl.sg.fem. Eng: fortitude fuerunt.sum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be Galliprop. nonnon: adv. Eng: not viceruntvinco: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: win pecunia.pecunia: noun.abl.sg.fem. Eng: money Quandoquando: adv. Eng: when Galliprop. veneruntvenio: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: come inin: prep. Eng: in Capitolium,prop. anseresanser: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: goose exclamaveruntexclamo: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: exclaim vocevox: noun.abl.sg.fem. Eng: voice magna.magnus: adj.abl.sg.fem. Eng: great Romaniprop. etiametiam: adv. Eng: also, yet exclamaveruntexclamo: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: exclaim vocevox: noun.abl.sg.fem. Eng: voice magna.magnus: adj.abl.sg.fem. Eng: great Romaniprop. etiametiam: adv. Eng: also, yet bonibonus: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: good fueruntsum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be consiliis.consilium: noun.abl.pl.neut. Eng: counsel Galliprop. nonnon: adv. Eng: not fueruntsum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be bonibonus: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: good consiliis.consilium: noun.abl.pl.neut. Eng: counsel Galliprop. malimalus: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: evil consiliisconsilium: noun.abl.pl.neut. Eng: counsel fuerunt.sum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be Senatussenatus: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: senate Romanusprop. fuitsum: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: be bonusbonus: adj.nom.sg.masc. Eng: good consiliis.consilium: noun.abl.pl.neut. Eng: counsel Senatussenatus: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: senate creavitcreo: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: create Dictatorem.doctator: noun.acc.sg.masc. Eng: dictator Senatussenatus: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: senate dixitdico: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: say quodquod: conj. Eng: that Cincinnatusprop. fuitsum: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: be virvir: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: man fortis.fortis: adj.nom.sg.masc. Eng: brave Cincinnatusprop. Aequosprop. vicit.vinco: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: win Cincinnatusprop. Aequosprop. nonnon: adv. Eng: not vicitvinco: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: win pecunia.pecunia: noun.nom.sg.fem. Eng: money Cincinnatusprop. Aequosprop. nonnon: adv. Eng: not vicitvinco: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: win igni.ignis: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: fire Cincinnatusprop. Aequosprop. vicitvinco: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: win fortitudine.fortitudo: noun.abl.sg.fem. Eng: fortitude Sedsed: conj. Eng: but Columbusprop. etiametiam: adv. Eng: also, yet fuitsum: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: be magnusmagnus: adj.nom.sg.masc. Eng: great fortitudine.fortitudo: noun.abl.sg.fem. Eng: fortitude Columbusprop. enimenim: conj. Eng: for inin: prep. Eng: in Americamprop. venit.venio: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: come Columbusprop. venitvenio: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: come adad: prep. Eng: to Americamprop. navibus.navis: noun.abl.pl.fem. Eng: ship Agnusagnus: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: lamb nonnon: adv. Eng: not venitvenio: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: come adad: prep. Eng: to Americamprop. navibus.navis: noun.abl.pl.fem. Eng: ship Agnusagnus: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: lamb adad: prep. Eng: to Americamprop. nonnon: adv. Eng: not venit.venio: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: come Primisprimus: adj.abl.pl.masc. Eng: first diebusdies: noun.abl.pl.masc. Eng: day Romaniprop. bellumbellum: noun.acc.sg.neut. Eng: war habuerunt.habeo: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: have Romaniprop. multismultus: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: many annisannus: noun.abl.pl.masc. Eng: year bellumbellum: noun.acc.sg.neut. Eng: war habuerunt.habeo: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: have Romaniprop. ferefere: adv. Eng: almost sempersemper: adv. Eng: always bellumbellum: noun.acc.sg.neut. Eng: war habuerunt.habeo: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: have Romaniprop. nonnon: adv. Eng: not pugnaveruntpugno: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: fight aqua.aqua: noun.abl.sg.fem. Eng: water Romaniprop. nonnon: adv. Eng: not pugnaveruntpugno: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: fight igni.ignis: noun.abl.sg.masc. Eng: fire Romaniprop. pugnaveruntpugno: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: fight magnismagnus: adj.abl.pl.masc. Eng: great exercitibus.exercitus: noun.abl.pl.masc. Eng: army Romaprop. fuitsum: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: be fortisfortis: adj.nom.sg.masc. Eng: brave civibuscivis: noun.abl.pl.masc. Eng: citizen fortibus.fortis: adj.abl.pl.masc. Eng: brave Romaprop. fuitsum: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: be magnamagnus: adj.abl.sg.fem. Eng: great potestate.potestas: noun.abl.sg.fem. Eng: power Nuncnunc: adv. Eng: now Romaprop. estsum: verb.pres.3per.sg. Eng: be magnamagnus: adj.abl.sg.fem. Eng: great veritateveritas: noun.abl.sg.fem. Eng: truth Christiana.prop.

Lectio Sexta


Learn Latin on the Armenian Antilibrary, by Beyon Miloyan

Romaniprop. habuerunthabeo: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: have bellumbellum: noun.acc.sg.neut. Eng: war cumcum: prep. Eng: with Aequis.prop. Consulconsul: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: consul Romanusprop. venitvenio: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: come cumcum: prep. Eng: with exercituexercitus: noun.abl.sg.masc. Eng: army Romanoprop. adad: prep. Eng: to pugnam.pugna: noun.acc.sg.fem. Eng: battle Exercitusexercitus: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: army Romanusprop. pugnavitpugno: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: fight cumcum: prep. Eng: with Aequis.prop. Aequiprop. pugnaveruntpugno: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: fight cumcum: prep. Eng: with Romanis.prop. Aequiprop. virivir: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: man fortesfortis: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: brave fuerunt.sum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be Sedsed: conj. Eng: but Romaniprop. etiametiam: adv. Eng: also, yet virivir: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: man fortesfortis: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: brave fuerunt.sum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be Ergoergo: adv. Eng: because of, on account of virivir: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: man fortesfortis: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: brave pugnaveruntpugno: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: fight cumcum: prep. Eng: with virisvir: noun.abl.pl.masc. Eng: man fortibus.fortis: adj.abl.pl.masc. Eng: brave Sedsed: conj. Eng: but exercitusexercitus: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: army Romanusprop. venitvenio: verb.past.3per.sg. Eng: come inin: prep. Eng: in magnummagnus: adj.acc.sg.neut. Eng: great periculum.periculum: noun.acc.sg.neut. Eng: danger Virivir: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: man Romaniprop. exclamaverunt:exclamo: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: exclaim inin: prep. Eng: in magnomagnus: adj.abl.sg.masc. Eng: great periculopericulum: noun.abl.sg.neut. Eng: danger sumus!sum: verb.pres.1per.pl. Eng: be Sedsed: conj. Eng: but virivir: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: man Romaniprop. fortesfortis: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: brave fuerunt.sum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be Etet: conj. Eng: and inin: prep. Eng: in urbeurbs: noun.abl.sg.fem. Eng: city Romanaprop. fuitsum: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: be senatussenatus: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: senate Romanus.prop. Virivir: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: man bonibonus: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: good fueruntsum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be inin: prep. Eng: in senatusenatus: noun.abl.sg.masc. Eng: senate Romano.prop. Ergoergo: adv. Eng: because of, on account of senatussenatus: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: senate Romanusprop. fecitfacio: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: make consilium:consilium: noun.acc.sg.neut. Eng: plan Dictatoremdictator: noun.acc.sg.masc. Eng: dictator creaverunt.creo: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: create Cincinnatusprop. fuitsum: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: be virvir: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: man bonus,bonus: adj.nom.sg.masc. Eng: good virvir: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: man fortis.fortis: adj.nom.sg.masc. Eng: brave Inin: prep. Eng: in veritate,veritas: noun.abl.sg.fem. Eng: truth Cincinnatusprop. fuitsum: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: be Romanusprop. bonus.bonus: adj.nom.sg.masc. Eng: good Legatilegatus: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: ambassador exex: prep. Eng: from senatusenatus: noun.abl.sg.masc. Eng: senate veneruntvenio: verb.past.3per.pl. Eng: come adad: prep. Eng: to Cincinnatum.prop. Cincinnatusprop. fuitsum: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: be inin: prep. Eng: in agris.ager: noun.abl.pl.masc. Eng: field Legatilegatus: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: ambassador exex: prep. Eng: from senatusenatus: noun.abl.sg.masc. Eng: senate dixeruntdico: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: say quodquod: conj. Eng: that exercitusexercitus: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: army Romanusprop. inin: prep. Eng: in periculopericulum: noun.abl.sg.neut. Eng: danger magnomagnus: adj.abl.sg.masc. Eng: great fuit.sum: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: be Dixeruntdico: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: say quodquod: conj. Eng: that senatussenatus: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: senate creavitcreo: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: create Cincinnatumprop. dictatorem.dictator: noun.acc.sg.masc. Eng: dictator Ergoergo: adv. Eng: because of, on account of Cincinnatusprop. nonnon: adv. Eng: not remansitremaneo: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: remain inin: prep. Eng: in agris.ager: noun.abl.pl.masc. Eng: field Cincinnatusprop. fuitsum: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: be dictator.dictator: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: dictator Cincinnatusprop. venitvenio: verb.past.3per.sg. Eng: come cumcum: prep. Eng: with virisvir: noun.abl.pl.masc. Eng: man fortibus.fortis: adj.abl.pl.masc. Eng: brave Cincinnatusprop. pugnavitpugno: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: fight cumcum: prep. Eng: with Aequis.prop. Cincinnatusprop. vicitvinco: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: win Aequos.prop. Sedsed: conj. Eng: but Cincinnatusprop. nonnon: adv. Eng: not remansitremaneo: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: remain Dictator.dictator: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: dictator Cincinnatusprop. nonnon: adv. Eng: not voluitvolo: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: want magnammagnus: adj.acc.sg.fem. Eng: great potestatem.potestas: noun.acc.sg.fem. Eng: power Cincinnatusprop. voluitvolo: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: want agrosager: noun.acc.pl.masc. Eng: field bonos.bonus: adj.acc.pl.masc. Eng: good Ergoergo: adv. Eng: because of, on account of Cincinnatusprop. venitvenio: verb.past.3per.sg. Eng: come inin: prep. Eng: in senatum.senatus: noun.acc.sg.masc. Eng: senate Cincinnatusprop. dixitdico: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: say inin: prep. Eng: in senatusenatus: noun.abl.sg.masc. Eng: senate quodquod: conj. Eng: that nonnon: adv. Eng: not voluitvolo: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: want magnammagnus: adj.acc.sg.fem. Eng: great potestatem.potestas: noun.acc.sg.fem. Eng: power Cincinnatusprop. venitvenio: verb.past.3per.sg. Eng: come rursusrursus: adv. Eng: again inin: prep. Eng: in agros.ager: noun.acc.pl.masc. Eng: field Nuncnunc: adv. Eng: now Cincinnatusprop. nonnon: adv. Eng: not estsum: verb.pres.3per.sg. Eng: be Dictator.dictator: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: dictator

Nuncnunc: adv. Eng: now Cogitemuscogito: verb.past.perf.1per.pl. Eng: think

Nominative endings: We have been using the nominative endings for the subject for some time now. So let us add them up, for the three declensions that we know:

Singular Plural
1. -a (nauta) -ae (nautae)
2. -us, -r (agnus, ager, vir) -i (agni, agri, viri)
3. - -es

Notice that we did not indicate an ending for the nominative singular of third declension-that is because there is so large a variety: we must learn each word as it is. Notice also that there are a few words that we have already had that do not fit into the table above. Do not bother about them now. We will see about them later. We can use them easily without knowing all about them. But let us be sure to learn the nominative and the ablative singular of each word. Then they will not be hard to handle.

Preposition ex: Notice the preposition ex has two forms: e and ex. E is used before consonants. Ex is used before vowels (sometimes before consonants also).

Exerceamusexerceo: verb.pres.1per.pl. Eng: exercise nosego: pron.nom.pl. Eng: I

Romaniprop. enimenim: conj. Eng: for fortesfortis: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: brave virivir: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: man fuerunt.sum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be Quandoquando: adv. Eng: when pugnaveruntpugno: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: fight cumcum: prep. Eng: with Aequis,prop. Romaniprop. viceruntvinco: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: win Aequos.prop. Romaniprop. veneruntvenio: verb.past.3per.pl. Eng: come exex: prep. Eng: from urbeurbs: noun.abl.sg.fem. Eng: city adad: prep. Eng: to pugnam.pugna: noun.acc.sg.fem. Eng: battle Aequiprop. veneruntvenio: verb.past.3per.pl. Eng: come exex: prep. Eng: from urbeurbs: noun.abl.sg.fem. Eng: city adad: prep. Eng: to pugnam.pugna: noun.acc.sg.fem. Eng: battle Horatiusprop. pugnavitpugno: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: fight cumcum: prep. Eng: with Etruscis.prop. Etrusciprop. etiametiam: adv. Eng: also, yet fueruntsum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be virivir: noun.abl.pl.masc. Eng: man fortes.fortis: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: brave Romaniprop. fueruntsum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be inin: prep. Eng: in magnomagnus: adj.abl.sg.masc. Eng: great periculopericulum: noun.abl.sg.neut. Eng: danger postquampostquam: conj. Eng: after regemrex: noun.acc.sg.masc. Eng: king Tarquiniumprop. expulerunt.expello: verb.past.3per.pl. Eng: expel Romaniprop. fueruntsum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be inin: prep. Eng: in magnomagnus: adj.abl.sg.masc. Eng: great periculopericulum: noun.abl.sg.neut. Eng: danger quandoquando: adv. Eng: when pugnaveruntpugno: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: fight cumcum: prep. Eng: with Aequis.prop. Sedsed: conj. Eng: but Romaniprop. viceruntvinco: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: win Etruscosprop. etet: conj. Eng: and Aequos.prop. Cincinnatusprop. fuitsum: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: be Dictatordictator: noun.acc.sg.masc. Eng: dictator Romanus.prop. Sedsed: conj. Eng: but Cincinnatusprop. nonnon: adv. Eng: not voluitvolo: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: want potestatempotestas: noun.acc.sg.fem. Eng: power magnam.magnus: adj.acc.sg.fem. Eng: great Cincinnatusprop. amavitamo: verb.past.3per.sg. Eng: love Romam.prop. Cincinnatusprop. fecitfacio: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: make consiliumconsilium: noun.acc.sg.neut. Eng: plan bonum.bonus: adj.acc.sg.neut. Eng: good Cincinnatusprop. nonnon: adv. Eng: not remansitremaneo: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: remain Dictator.dictator: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: dictator Plebsplebs: noun.nom.sg.fem. Eng: plebeian nonnon: adv. Eng: not remansitremaneo: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: remain inin: prep. Eng: in urbe.urbs: noun.abl.sg.fem. Eng: city Plebsplebs: noun.nom.sg.fem. Eng: plebeian nonnon: adv. Eng: not venitvenio: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: come inin: prep. Eng: in scholam.schola: noun.acc.sg.fem. Eng: school Marcusprop. venitvenio: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: come inin: prep. Eng: in scholamschola: noun.acc.sg.fem. Eng: school cumcum: prep. Eng: with Maria.prop. Agnusprop. venitvenio: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: come inin: prep. Eng: in scholamschola: noun.acc.sg.fem. Eng: school cumcum: prep. Eng: with Maria.prop. Fuitnesum: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: be; ne: part. Marcusprop. agnus?agnus: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: lamb Mariaprop. dixitdico: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: say quodquod: conj. Eng: that Marcusprop. fuitsum: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: be agnus,agnus: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: lamb Fuitnesum: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: be; ne: part. Marcusprop. rotundus?rotundus: adj.nom.sg.masc. Eng: round Tribunitribunus: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: tribune plebisplebs: noun.gen.sg.fem. Eng: plebeian habuerunthabeo: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: have magnammagnus: adj.acc.sg.fem. Eng: great potestatem.potestas: noun.acc.sg.fem. Eng: power Consulesconsul: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: consul etiametiam: adv. Eng: also, yet habuerunthabeo: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: have magnammagnus: adj.acc.sg.fem. Eng: great potestatem.potestas: noun.acc.sg.fem. Eng: power Sedsed: conj. Eng: but consulesconsul: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: consul etet: conj. Eng: and tribunitribunus: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: tribune plebisplebs: noun.gen.sg.fem. Eng: plebeian nonnon: adv. Eng: not fueruntsum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be virivir: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: man mali.malus: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: evil Fueruntsum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be virivir: noun.abl.pl.masc. Eng: man boni.bonus: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: good Inin: prep. Eng: in veritateveritas: noun.abl.sg.fem. Eng: truth fueruntsum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be Romaniprop. fortes.fortis: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: brave Exercitusexercitus: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: army Romanusprop. etiametiam: adv. Eng: also, yet fuitsum: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: be fortis.fortis: adj.nom.sg.masc. Eng: brave Virivir: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: man fortesfortis: adj.nom.pl.masc. Eng: brave fueruntsum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be inin: prep. Eng: in exercitu.exercitus: noun.abl.sg.masc. Eng: army Horatiusprop. stetitsto: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: stand inin: prep. Eng: in ponte.pons: noun.abl.sg.masc. Eng: bridge Ponspons: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: bridge ceciditcado: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: fall inin: prep. Eng: in aquam.aqua: noun.acc.sg.fem. Eng: water Horatiusprop. etiametiam: adv. Eng: also, yet ceciditcado: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: fall inin: prep. Eng: in aquam.aqua: noun.acc.sg.fem. Eng: water Porciporcus: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: pig nonnon: adv. Eng: not cecideruntcado: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: fall inin: prep. Eng: in aquam.aqua: noun.acc.sg.fem. Eng: water Porciporcus: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: pig nonnon: adv. Eng: not amaveruntamo: verb.past.3per.pl. Eng: love aquam.aqua: noun.acc.sg.fem. Eng: water Etiametiam: adv. Eng: also, yet agnusagnus: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: lamb nonnon: adv. Eng: not ceciditcado: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: fall inin: prep. Eng: in aquam.aqua: noun.acc.sg.fem. Eng: water Sedsed: conj. Eng: but agnusagnus: noun.nom.sg.masc. Eng: lamb albusalbus: adj.nom.sg.masc. Eng: white fuit.sum: verb.past.perf.3per.sg. Eng: be Porciporcus: noun.nom.pl.masc. Eng: pig nonnon: adv. Eng: not albialbus: adj.nom.sg.masc. Eng: white fuerunt.sum: verb.past.perf.3per.pl. Eng: be